The importance of carbohydrates for bodybuilding

The importance of carbohydrates for bodybuilding

Sugar is a powerful macronutrient that prevents the breakdown of muscle proteins, provides energy to your muscles during the most strenuous and essential for muscle development workouts. They are also the ones that allow your muscles to be always large and dense. Whether you want to gain muscle or dry , manage sugar intake is just as important as controlling the intake of protein and fat . What are the best sources of carbohydrates ? How much and how often should we eat ? Here are the answers .

carbohydrate definition
Carbohydrates are all sugars . But like everything related to nutrition, nothing is ever as simple as you would like . The sugar with which we are most familiar is table sugar (sucrose) . Then, of course , we have fruit sugar (fructose) and milk sugar (lactose) .

Whatever the shape of sugar you consume , it will be metabolized and converted into glucose to be used by the body or stored as glycogen (mainly in the liver cells and muscles).

Scientists generally classify hydrates of carbon according to the number of molecules linked together : monosaccharide , disaccharide , polysaccharide.

A monosaccharide is a single sugar molecule , those are vital nutrionnellement fructose and glucose. All simple sugars or monosaccharides are not treated the same way by the body. For example , fructose is mainly converted into glucose by the liver and tends to promote the synthesis of more fat than other sugars.

Sucrose, contrary to what we usually think is actually composed of two sugars, glucose and fructose. This is usually the sugar consumed in industrialized countries . Lactose is formed by glucose plus galactose , a combination found in milk. This is the carbohydrate in the less sweet taste fructose being the one with the sweeter taste . The problem with the lactose is that many people suffer from intolerances that cause all sorts of gastrointestinal problems . This is why it is often mentioned on the labels of some protein powder that does not contain lactose.

Finally and most importantly, polysaccharides ( complex carbohydrates ) are starches and fibers. Starches are the most nutrient dense carbohydrates (bread , cereals, pasta , oatmeal , rice, wheat , beans , potatoes , tubers and roots).

Starchy foods or plants containing starch are the most important parts of your diet carbohydrates. These are the carbs where you need to focus , while simple sugars are the ones you should limit !

The glycemic index
Carbohydrates are the food digestion leads sooner or glucose . Foods taste sweet as table sugar and fruit, are considered " simple sugars " , that is to say, they pass quickly into the bloodstream (as glucose) after ingestion and triggering excessive insulin secretion.

Vegetables and whole grains are considered " complex carbohydrates " , that is to say, they slowly transformed into glucose in the intestine before entering the blood. As a result, insulin secretion is more uniform and less brutal , affecting low blood sugar.

This second category of carbohydrate is usually recommended while sugar is not recommended. But we must look more closely, because the glycemic index, or rate at which the different carbohydrate foods are digested and increase blood glucose concentration , a few surprises . For example, table sugar (sucrose) has index 59, while the potato index 80 , and glucose 100 index . However, many bodybuilders still believe that the potato is a slow sugar and table sugar sugar fast . This is the semantic confusion between sweet carbohydrate foods , sweetened or not ( in taste ) , sucrose and glucose which maintains this ignorance : the term "sugar" is used both to describe effect carbohydrate foods to indicate that the glucose or sucrose (table sugar ) .

The glycemic index carbohydrate foods has been experimentally established to help diabetics make up their menus. The experience of diabetics had already taught that the white bread for example could cause diabetic hyperglycemia with loss of glucose in the urine ( in fact, insulin-dependent diabetics can not set aside so that glucose accumulates in blood and passes into the urine . by systematizing experiences, we arrived at a ranking of carbohydrate foods , since glucose is the fastest way to raise blood glucose levels , to peanuts , which are slower to increase this rate .

The higher the index is, the faster the conversion of food into blood glucose. For quick energy , for example, even during the workout , you must choose the food with the highest index. For a delayed and more stable blood glucose energy , choose foods with low indices.

Skim milk and fructose have rather low indices while rice , bread and potatoes have high indices. However, despite their high rates , non-diabetic bodybuilders can recharge glycogen with rice and potatoes, and even honey.

Indeed, after an intense session , or in the morning on an empty stomach , a bodybuilder good health can redo glycogen with any kind of carbohydrates, and the faster he will choose carbohydrates Index high. Why do not we have to put too much value on the glycemic index? Because indices release rate of glucose correspond to isolated ingestion of food. That is why we must also take account of feed mixtures , since the mixture of carbohydrates with proteins or lipids especially with may delay the speed of circulation of glucose.

Although the glycemic index seems to be considered a sacred cow by those who are dieting , it has no real use for most of our meals. If you eat potatoes with an omelette , the index drops due to fat egg . It is the same for peanuts which contain per 100 g , 44 g fat , 23 g protein, in addition to 22 g of carbohydrates.

Ice cream has a low index because it contains lipids that retard digestion, and because it contains sugars (sucrose and lactose) must be converted into glucose by the liver before appearing in the blood as glucose . Virtually all simple sugars (glucose and fructose) and compounds ( sucrose) appear in the blood as glucose five to seven minutes after swallowing all simple sugars are not recommended at rest, but it is recommended to continue to eat sugar lumps during muscular activity. Indeed , fast carbs determine an insulin response at rest : muscle exercise instead brings an inhibition of insulin secretion, stimulation of glucagon secretion and mobilization of reserves.

Need and carbohydrate storage
If there are essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, there are no essential carbohydrates . Once the basic needs essential nutrients are met , the energy requirement can be covered by proteins, lipids or proteins. Our organization is indeed able to synthesize and store glucose it needs .

In fact, the usual normal diet provides 20% of calories as protein (providing 4 calories per gram ), 30% as fat ( 9 calories per gram ) and 50% as carbohydrate ( 4 calories per gram ) .

The sports nutritionists recommend reducing fat in favor of carbohydrates to increase stamina and ability to intensive efforts. However, bodybuilders have interest to bring to at least 25% the proportion of protein in diet to gain muscle , and 40% plan to dry. But the share of carbohydrates may be reduced to 10% without metabolic disorders . However, a number of bodies absolutely need glucose : the case of the nervous system, red blood cells, the adrenal medulla and the lens. Minimum consumption of glucose in these glucodépendants bodies is about 180 g to 245 g per day. But after a few days of fasting, the brain adjusts its metabolism by eating ketones ( fatty acids derived from acidic substances ) , which limits the need for glucose to about 100 g . However, one can not speak of critical need in carbohydrate foods , in the sense of essential amino acids , essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals are talking about. In fact, our body is able to synthesize carbohydrates needed .

The body stores calories in two forms (plus muscle itself , which is a pool of proteins that can be used to provide glucose when fasting ) , one whose capacity is limited ( glycogen ) , the another is limitless ( fat reserves ) .

The small amount of glucose is mainly stored as glycogen in muscle and liver in contrast with the fat reserves that can be overabundant in the result of abuse of food.

The excess glucose from the digestion of carbohydrates is converted to fat to build up fat reserves.

The same is true for the excess amino acids from protein digestion . After a period of fasting 8 to 10 hours , or after physical exertion that has consumed much of glycogen reserves can be depleted. A liver can store about 2 kilos 140 grams of glycogen , and 40 pounds of muscle to store about 600 g . This makes a total of up to 740 g 2960 calories. But only the liver glycogen is readily available to supply glucose- dependent organs ( muscle glycogen stores do not directly contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose).

If you eat nothing , the body uses the amino acids of muscle ( about 58% protein can be converted into glucose) and a small amount of fat ( glycerol, carbohydrate represents about 10 % of a triglyceride molecule ) to make glucose. Because it diffuses into the blood lactic acid from the working muscles can also provide glucose , after its passage through the liver converts it into glucose.

If one refrains from carbohydrates , protein or muscle power eventually be the main source of glucose, their nitrogen portion returning to state urea which is excreted in the urine .

The body fat is mainly triglycerides , consisting of three attached to a molecule of glycerol fatty acids. Glycerol is one that follows the fate of carbohydrates and can be recovered pure glucose supply alcohol. For cons , the fatty acids derived from glucose or fats can not be used to synthesize glucose . The metabolism of glucose and fatty acids in the cytoplasm of cells leads to a common intermediate body, acetyl-CoA This acetylcoenzyme A then enters the cell organelles called mitochondria to produce energy by oxidative phosphorylation . ( phosphorus addition , the phosphate compound and oxidation ) . The process called Krebs cycle is relatively slow , so that an accumulation of acetyl coenzyme A, as a result of an excess of dietary lipids and carbohydrates , results in the synthesis and storage of fat.

Sugar, hypoglycemia and obesity
We believe that table sugar (sucrose ) is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream , causing a sudden rise in blood glucose , followed by a rapid drop in the rate. Table sugar is accused of having a low blood glucose (or blood sugar ) in a vicious circle : Sugar raises blood sugar, which secrete insulin from the pancreas and insulin must penetrate glucose into the cells , which depletes the blood glucose. The poverty of blood glucose makes you hungry , which leads to snacking sweet products and ultimately creates obesity. Some are real addicts sugar .

However, the induced hypoglycemia ( by no carbohydrate diet and intensive training and short ) is a good way to lose fat quickly . Indeed, in a body in perfect health, the drastic reduction in carbohydrates triggers the accelerated recovery of fat reserves. The adrenal glands release adrenaline , which improves the supply to the brain and increases lipolysis ( release from triglycerides, fatty acids enter the blood to go refuel muscles with energy ) . The pancreas releases glucagon , which converts glycogen into glucose , increases lipolysis and promotes the formation of glucose from lactic acid , glycerol and certain amino acids. The pituitary gland releases growth hormone that helps build muscle and lose fat.

Sugar is not a food that miraculously makes you fat. It does not provide more calories per gram than protein, while fats provide more than double. What makes obese is to absorb more calories than the body spends . Excess calories , it can be any food , even chicken breast and salad . In this sense, there is that we do not eat that is not fattening .

Carbs before training
Carbohydrate intake before exercise definitely helps performance for endurance sports. In fact, one study compared the effects of 75 grams of glucose , 75 grams of fructose and placebo , taken 30 minutes before running . The threshold of exhaustion was higher than 5 % in the glucose and fructose in the highest 10 % in the glucose group than in the placebo group. The question is: can we have the same improvement in bodybuilding ? Unfortunately not, many studies show that taking sugar before a workout did not contribute to the level of their performance in training. When you practice a short, intense effort , you can count on blood glucose as a source of fuel even if your muscle glycogen reserves are low.

Sugar intake before training is useless unless you practice a bit of cardio before strength training . In this case, the carbohydrate intake will increase your performance.

Other research has clearly determined that enough hydrates solid or liquid carbon have similar benefits on work endurance when consumed during exercise. There is much speculation on the taking of carbohydrates avantagerais the same performance for those who do not do cardio and go straight to the gym. One exception, if your last meal was more than 10h , you can take a drink consisting of glucose or glucose polymer ( eg maltodextrin ) : 30 to 60 grams an hour before you start your workout. Do not drink something high fructose : you could make a quick and impromptu round the toilet or have stomach problems.

Carbohydrates after training
Most experts recommend taking after training, a snack containing carbohydrates with a high glycemic index to facilitate the resynthesis of glycogen and protein assimilation . Carbohydrates with a high glycemic index will activate the production of a powerful anabolic hormone, insulin. This hormone stops catabolism caused by your intensive training, and encourage the entry of protein in your muscles. All these actions will result to optimize the recovery and muscle building.

The right proportions
The macronutrient composition of the diet for an average bodybuilder should be approximately as follows: 50% of calories from carbohydrates, 30% protein and 20% fat . Because of the biological value , each individual must play with these percentages to find that during making mass works best with him or her. For your sugar intake , you have to focus on complex and varied (forget the glycemic index) and your protein should preferably be from lean sources such as chicken, fish , etc. . For fats, you should focus on monounsaturated (vegetable oils) and omega 3 fatty acids (salmon, sardines, herring ) . Limit your intake of trans fatty acid ( manufactured industrially as margarine fat).

The timing of carbohydrates
Feeding before exercise : it is certainly important for those that combine aerobic and strength training work about an hour before your workout , consume 200 calories (50 grams of carbohydrates in the form of food with a low glycemic index such as yoghurt , peas , beans or lentils. Otherwise, eat a food with a high such a small portion of bread, a small portion of rice or any of these products with a gelatinous texture and polymer-based glucose glycemic index ( candy) , 10 to 15 minutes before exercise.

Supply during the year: many isotonic drinks will do , especially if you include aerobic exercise in your workout. Be sure to take 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour.

Power after training : an adequate supply of carbon hydrate within 30 minutes after exercise is important . Of course, this should not be a problem for most practitioners . Choose fast carbohydrates such as rice, wheat , corn .

Dietary fiber
Consisting of molecules of glucose , cellulose ( dietary fiber found only in plant cell membranes ) is not digestible form a residue which helps the bowel . Pectin ( variety of dietary fiber , based on derivatives of galactose present in apples ) increases intestinal volume by absorbing water (formation of a gel, which use to make jams ) . Dietary fiber does not provide calories, and some ( apple pectin , fiber, carrots and oatmeal ) help remove cholesterol by setting bile salts and escape reabsorption (beware however fiber because experiments have shown that wheat bran was instead LDL cholesterol , that is to say, the bad cholesterol ! ) .

We can not say that the fibers are part of the essential nutrients. No disease results from a lack of dietary fiber.

However, constipation and obesity are some patients who take advantages of fiber intake. It fills the stomach without food (causing a feeling of fullness which proves to be a powerful natural appetite suppressant ) .

Then, in the large intestine, the fibers thicken fecal bolus drawing water as would a sponge , which accelerates the evacuation. Including fiber in their diet , diabetics require less insulin because the digestion of carbohydrates is delayed.

Besides the problems of gas and diarrhea, excess fibers can cause deficiencies in calcium , magnesium, zinc , iron and vitamin B12. Several statistics suggest that a diet rich in fiber protects colon cancer ( by setting and eliminating carcinogens ) , hemorrhoids (caused by the pressure it is necessary to exercise daily to make the difficult evacuation ) and diverticula ( small pockets or hernias of the intestinal mucosa , which can ignite and become infected , caused by gas , and the efforts to expel the food bowl.

Sugar is bad?
On all sides we hear about the evils of sugar. Is it really as bad as they say? In large quantities , it leads to obesity. The famous Dr. Atkins ( who advocates the very restricted diet of carbohydrates , for obese with what he calls " intolerance to carbohydrates ) explained to the public that sugar could become a real drug . Paradoxically it causes hypoglycemia , fatigue and pancreas to the point of creating diabetes in middle age, diabetes or fat (statistically diabetes disappears in a spectacular way when the sugar runs out ) .

Sugar undermines the effectiveness of the immune system by inhibiting the release of growth hormone by the pituitary gland ( known as growth hormone is normally released after an hour of sleep , hence the recommendation to avoid take before bed sugary foods that will secrete insulin which inhibit this release ) . Sugar being no stranger to vascular diseases so prevalent now suspected (he plays a role in the genesis of hypertriglyceridemia , indeed , insulin stimulates the synthesis of triglycerides), and help raise the rate of acid blood uric . In the mouth , it feeds the bacteria that cause cavities and tooth decay .

Table sugar , called sucrose , resulting from the combination of glucose and fructose in equal shares. It is refined to remove contaminants contained in the raw state . This purification process removes vitamins ( eg vitamin B1) and minerals (eg potassium) for its use by the agency must use its reserves to use it.

Sugar, pure carbohydrate and is a source of "empty" calories because it brings neither protein or minerals or vitamins that our bodies absolutely need, so that he can live without sugar.

The nutritional recommendations are not to exceed 10% of calories as sucrose for a sedentary . Feeding a sports competition for a long period of time may far exceed this amount without any problem ( except for teeth ) .

Chemical study
There are simple sugars ( monosaccharides, or monosaccharides ) , and more complex sugars ( saccharides , disaccharides up from polysaccharides , oligosaccharides through ) . Monosaccharide is a carbon molecule which is in the form of a chain comprising a plurality of alcohol groups and bearing an aldehyde functional group (CHO ) or a ketone (CO ) . Depending on the number of carbon atoms of the molecule , it is called triose ( 3 carbon atoms , for example , glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone ) of tetroses ( 4 carbon atoms , such as reddening) , pentose ( 5 carbon atoms, for example, ribose) or hexose ( 6 carbon atoms, for example glucose ) . Examples of monosaccharides : glucose ( aldose or dare aldehyde function , sometimes called dextrose ), fructose ( ketosis , or dare ketone ) , galactose ) .

Glucose is a molecule consisting of a chain of 6 carbon atoms, 12 which are attached hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms . The chemical formula of glucose , C6 H12 O 6 , is also that of fructose , and galactose , which have the same number of atoms but not the same spatial structure ( the atoms have a specific requirement for each molecule isomer) . The arrangement of atoms in space may take several isomeric forms from a chemical formula based on the optical rotation of polarized light , there are a dextrorotatory form (glucose, which rotates the plane of polarization to the right ) a levorotatory form (fructose , which deviates the polarization plane to the left ) and an optically inactive form. Depending on the position of the hydroxyl group (OH) on the penultimate carbon chain , there are L- shaped and D- shaped , which does not overlap with the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms in dare more 4 carbons ( except arabinose and frucose , which are two of the pentose L- series , pentoses and hexoses are all the D- series ) .

In combination , the dare form polymers which are simpler disaccharides , or combination of two monosaccharides : sucrose ( glucose and fructose , table sugar) , lactose ( galactose and glucose , milk sugar) , maltose (glucose and glucose ) . So the combination of eight monosaccharides, oligosaccharides talking , from 9 monosaccharides, is called polysaccharides (starch, glycogen , cellulose) . When glycoside contains only dare is a holoside , otherwise , it is a glycoside , which contains a non- carbohydrate portion . Maltodextrins ( hydrolysis of starch products ) promote protein anabolism by a protein sparing effect during intense efforts. These are glucose polymers , which have the advantage of quickly leave the stomach and intestine, without attracting the muscle water , to go quickly supply the muscle cells for energy and replenish the glycogen stores .

Many people are forced to give up sugar , for all sorts of reasons. But they are not obliged to refuse the sweet taste , with sweeteners . There are carbohydrate sweeteners ( saccharin , xylitol ) , the protidic sweeteners (aspartame , glycine) and plant sweeteners ( stevia , licorice ) . Saccharin has been around a long time and is still used . The famous sugar substitutes are small white tablets which is 300 times sweeter than sucrose. One tablet provides no calorie ( but provides 5.2 mg of sodium ) and is equivalent to a piece of sugar 5 g . Based phenylalanine and aspartic acid, two amino acids , aspartame sweetener is the most widely used . Indeed, it leaves no bitter aftertaste . The sweetening power of aspartame is 180 times that of sucrose.

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